Land in the Everglades was being sold for $15 an acre--a month after Broward died in 1910. [53], The 1920s brought several favorable conditions that helped the land and population boom, one of which was an absence of any severe storms. Florida. An opponent of Everglades drainage, Stoneman published editorials that infuriated Governor Broward . We will do our best to meet our responsibilities and the responsibilities of all men to exercise dominion over the land, sea, and air above us as the higher order of man intends. The Everglades today receives less than one-third of its historic water flow, the water is contaminated by fertilizer and other runoff, and the wildlife-rich wetlands are half the size they were when the federal government started its draining projects in the 1920s. [94], A turning point for development in the Everglades came in 1969 when a replacement airport was proposed as Miami International Airport outgrew its capacities. Nevertheless, cities like Parkland Building canals would be more cost effective than constructing a dike around Lake Okeechobee. PROJECT TITLE Draining of the Everglades Ecosystem APPLICANTS Esther Alexandre, Ayanna Johnson, Ariel Berkeley, Tanija Nathaniel; Miami Lakes Educational Center SUMMARY AIMS OF PROJECT The Everglades cover about 8 million acres of the Florida peninsula. When the city brought in an expert to investigate, he discovered that the water in the Everglades was the area's groundwater—here, it appeared on the surface. "As a result, many lives were lost during the second phase of the storm. South Florida's first and perhaps most enthusiastic naturalist was Charles Torrey Simpson, who retired from the Smithsonian Institution to Miami in 1905 when he was 53. decade-long drought. Both of these construction projects have caused the waterflow through the Everglades to be greatly diminished over the years, resulting in a devastating effect on the ecology of the region. The Audubon Society became concerned with the amount of hunting being done in rookeries in the mangrove forests. Parkland and Coral Springs, just to the west of Heron Bay and the north/south (AP Photo/Wilfredo … Between 1940 and 1965, 6 million people moved to south Florida: 1,000 people moved to Miami every week. Nevertheless, cities like Parkland Would it not open to cultivation immense tracts of rich vegetable soil? Reduced freshwater flow and increased salinity in estuaries 3. Meindl, Christopher, et al. However, an early report by the project reflected local attitudes about the Everglades as a priority to people in nearby developed areas: "The aesthetic appeal of the Park can never be as strong as the demands of home and livelihood. [67] This abundance of "new" land stimulated the first of several south Florida land booms. "The Everglades: A Florida Frontier". Levees and pumping stations bordered each WCA, which released water in drier times and removed it and pumped it to the ocean or Gulf of Mexico in times of flood. ditches removing other water, the Everglades "[10], In 1897, an explorer named Hugh Willoughby spent eight days canoeing with a party from the mouth of the Harney River to the Miami River. Mangrove trees were cut down and replaced with palm trees to improve the view. As the lake exceeds its capacity in the wet season, the water forms a flat and very wide river, about 100 miles (160 km) long and 60 miles (97 km) wide. [54] However, on September 18, 1926, a storm that became known as the 1926 Miami Hurricane struck with winds over 140 miles per hour (230 km/h), and caused massive devastation. [87] In the late 1920s, agricultural experiments indicated that adding large amounts of manganese sulfate to Everglades muck produced profitable vegetable harvests. Depletion of natural water storage areas 4. animals, birds, fish, plants, and reptilian species. [78], During the 1950s and 1960s the South Florida metropolitan area grew four times as fast as the rest of the nation. Not until after 1877 did attention return to the Everglades. [3], Smith suggested cutting through the rim of the Everglades (known today as the Atlantic Coastal Ridge), connecting the heads of rivers to the coastline so that 4 feet (1.2 m) of water would be drained from the area. The Swamp and Overflowed Lands Act ensured that the state would be responsible for funding the attempts at developing wetlands into farmlands. To me the Everglades are like a puzzle, a Rubik’s cube I can’t put down. The Everglades are a vast network of subtropical freshwater wetland and estuarine ecosystems that once spanned the length and breadth of south Florida. The DCPA director was reported in Time saying, "I'm more interested in people than alligators. Dovell, Junius (July 1948). [23] Along the way he built resort hotels, transforming territorial outposts into tourist destinations and the land bordering the rail lines into citrus farms. "[3] From this directive Secretary of the Treasury Robert J. Walker requested Thomas Buckingham Smith from St. Augustine to consult those with experience in the Everglades on the feasibility of draining them, saying that he had been told two or three canals to the Gulf of Mexico would be sufficient. "The Ecological-Societal Underpinnings of Everglades Restoration", Snyder G.H., J. Davidson, "Everglades Agriculture: Past, Present and Future" in. It also forced drainage commissioners to re-evaluate the effectiveness of the canals. Low flow pools t… [35] Meanwhile, Henry Flagler continued to build railway stations at towns as soon as the populations warranted them. Broward was elected to the Senate in 1910, but died before he could take office. The populations of the small towns surrounding the lake jumped from 3,000 to 9,000 after World War II. [34], Governor Broward ran for the U.S. Senate in 1908 but lost. Two days before the hurricane, an engineer predicted, "[i]f we have a blow, even a gale, Moore Haven is going under water". They can only be solved by a thorough examination of the whole country. [13] The report is the first published study on the topic of the Everglades, and concluded with the statement: The Ever Glades are now suitable only for the haunt of noxious vermin or the resort of pestilent reptiles. Depletion of natural water storage areas 4. Also, South Florida's aquifers, which supply most of the region with drinking water, are recharged by the surface water of the Everglades, so "draining the swamp" led to groundwater depletion … "On the Importance of Claims-Making: The Role of James O. Wright in Promoting the Drainage of Florida's Everglades in the Early Twentieth Century". "Green awakening: Social Activism and the Evolution of Marjory Stoneman Douglas's Environmental Consciousness", Davis, Jack (January 2003). Extremes either way can create major ripple effects, … Flagler's establishment of "the Styx", a settlement for hotel and rail line workers across the river from the barrier island containing Palm Beach, became West Palm Beach. started its draining projects in the 1920s. [88] The primary cash crop in the EAA is sugarcane, though sod, beans, lettuce, celery, and rice are also grown. The first attempt to drain the region was made by real estate developer Hamilton Disston in 1881. The soil would be fertile after drainage, the climate would not be adversely affected, and the enormous lake would be able to irrigate farmland in the dry season. became parched. Between 1952 and 1954 in cooperation with the state of Florida it built a levee 100 miles (160 km) long between the eastern Everglades and suburbs from Palm Beach to Homestead, and blocked the flow of water into populated areas. The scouts reported that not enough land was present to build through the Everglades, so Flagler instead changed the plan to build to Key West in 1912. "[8] The land seemed to inspire extreme reactions of wonder or hatred. In short, people dried out, built on, and farmed the Everglades. President Herbert Hoover toured the towns affected by the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane and, an engineer himself, ordered the Army Corps of Engineers to assist the communities surrounding the lake. [68], Conservationists concerned about the Everglades have been a vocal minority ever since Miami was a young city. Control of the Hoover Dike and the waters of Lake Okeechobee were delegated to federal powers: the United States declared legal limits of the lake to be 14 feet (4.3 m) and 17 feet (5.2 m). He instead established Big Cypress National Preserve, announcing it in the Special Message to the Congress Outlining the 1972 Environmental Program. Scientists anticipate their recovery with successful restoration projects. They began by taxing counties that would be affected by the drainage attempts, at 5 cents an acre, and formed the Everglades Drainage District in 1907. [33] In 1912 Florida appointed Wright to oversee the drainage, and the real estate industry energetically misrepresented this mid-level engineer as the world's foremost authority on wetlands drainage, in charge of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Two dredges were built by 1908, but had cut only 6 miles (9.7 km) of canals. Further floods in 1947 prompted an unprecedented construction of canals throughout southern Florida. Reduced freshwater flow and increased salinity in estuaries 3. Usually, lake water is drawn south by canals and helps irrigate sugar cane, vegetables, rice and other crops in the nearly 500,000-acre called the … The limestone-based (marl) prairies of the southern Everglades have also been largely converted to agriculture. In uncultivated areas of the Everglades, subsidence is less obvious but probably widespread. Flagler built a railroad along the east coast of Florida and eventually to Key West; towns grew and farmland was cultivated along the rail line. "[55] In Miami alone, 115 people were counted dead—although the true figure may have been as high as 175, because death totals were racially segregated. Florida Memory project. In 1925, Miami newspapers published editions weighing over 7 pounds (3.2 kg), most of it real estate advertising. It took another 13 years for it to be dedicated on December 6, 1947. 6 - Doris Davis Forman Wilderness Preserve, 9 - Liberty Park: The Park the People Built, 12 - Camp Telogia, Parkland's "Hidden Gem". Marjory Stoneman Douglas, who made her home Scientists anticipate their recovery with successful restoration projects. [57], The City of Miami responded to the hurricane by downplaying its effects and turning down aid. Following another population boom after. The notion of draining the vast wetland persisted into the 20 th century. [54] More than 25,000 people were homeless in the city. [82] Everglades National Park management and Marjory Stoneman Douglas initially supported the C&SF, as it promised to maintain the Everglades and manage the water responsibly. During his 1904 campaign to be elected governor, Napoleon Bonaparte Broward promised to drain the Everglades, and his later projects were more effective than Disston's. Over 1,000 miles of canals and hundreds of pumping Sugarcane production soared after the dike and canal were built. In 1902, they hired a warden, Guy Bradley, to watch the rookeries around Cuthbert Lake. [66] In 1939, 1 million acres (4,000 km 2 ) of Everglades burned, and the black clouds of peat and sawgrass fires hung over Miami. From the middle of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century, the United States went through a period in which wetland removal was not questioned; it was considered the proper thing to do! "The lull lasted 35 minutes, and during that time the streets of the city became crowded with people", wrote Richard Gray, the local weather chief. Plume harvesting became a dangerous business. world to experience its natural beauty. The builders attempted to construct the road several times before they blasted the muck down to the limestone, filled it with rock and paved over it. The new jetport was planned to be larger than O'Hare, Dulles, JFK, and LAX airports combined; the location chosen was 6 miles (9.7 km) north of the Everglades National Park, within WCA 3. The Everglades is a massive watershed that crosses multiple ecosystems and communities. A national push for expansion and progress toward the latter part of the 19th century stimulated interest in draining the Everglades for agricultural use. The WCAs took up about 37 percent of the original Everglades. [61] Many were swept away and never recovered. In 2000, Congress authorized the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, or CERP, to fix the damage done by the flood control system that was put in place to drain the Everglades for agricultural, residential and commercial development. With metropolitan growth came urban problems associated with rapid expansion: Business Week reported real estate prices jumped from $200 to $800 an acre surrounding the planned location, and Life wrote of the expectations of the commercial interests in the area. Some tourists search for alligators, exotic birds or maybe even a ghost orchid. (December, 2002). Early engineer- ing efforts focused on drainage alone, and, as a result, much … [6] To avenge repeated surprise attacks on himself and ammunition stores, Colonel William Harney led an expedition into the Everglades in 1840, to hunt for a chief named Chekika. Thousands drowned when Lake Okeechobee breached its levees; the range of estimates of the dead spanned from 1,770 (according to the Red Cross) to 3,000 or more. thousands of years, its waters and vegetation provide home to thousands of [49] Miami became cosmopolitan and experienced a renaissance of architecture and culture. Many queries like these passed through our minds. [93] One of the defining characteristics of natural Everglades ecology is its ability to support itself in a nutrient-poor environment, and the introduction of fertilizers began to change this ecology. Everglades, owe their existence to almost 200 years of. Disston's sponsored canals were unsuccessful, but the land he purchased for them stimulated economic and population growth that attracted railway developer Henry Flagler. Acres of south Florida slash pine were taken down, some for lumber, but the wood was found to be dense and it split apart when nails were driven into it. His engineers focused on digging canals from Lake Okeechobee but were inadequate. [54] The 1926 hurricane effectively ended the land boom in Miami, despite the attempts at hiding the effects. assist gravity. Draining the Everglades removed this groundwater, which was replaced by ocean water seeping into the area's wells. The town of Moore Haven received 46 inches (1,200 mm) of rain in six weeks in 1924. In 1948, Inland, a "drain-the-Everglades" mentality promoted by politicians and developers, forever altered the course of the "River of Grass." The effects of the Hoover Dike were seen immediately. The landscape unnerved the young man shortly after he entered the Shark River: "The place looked wild and lonely. Florida. provide farming and inhabitable land. [19], Though Disston's canals did not drain, his purchase primed the economy of Florida. Wright's calculations for what canals should be able to hold were off by 55 percent. Mueller, Marti (October 10, 1969). Davis, Jack (Summer 2001). As a result, the American Red Cross was able to collect only $3 million of $5 million needed. saltwater mangrove swamps. They tore their clothes on sawgrass, ruined their boots on the uneven limestone floor, and were plagued by mosquitoes. Severe hurricanes in 1926 and 1928 caused catastrophic damage and flooding from Lake Okeechobee that prompted the Army Corps of Engineers to build a dike around the lake. Everglades is one of nature's true masterpieces with its 4000 square miles of diverse The main effects of canals and levees on Everglades water movement have been: 1. Bush, Gregory (May, 1999). In 1870, an author described the mangrove forests as a "waste of nature's grandest exhibition to have these carnivals of splendid vegetation occurring in isolated places where it is but seldom they are seen. After the Civil War, an agency named the Internal Improvement Fund (IIF), charged with using grant money to improve Florida's infrastructure through canals, rail lines, and roads, was eager to be rid of the debt incurred by the Civil War. When the muck dried, it turned to a fine black powder and created dust storms. [92] Vegetables require more fertilizer than sugarcane, though the fields may resemble the historic hydrology of the Everglades by being flooded in the wet season. ", Light, Stephen, J. Walter Dineen, "Water Control in the Everglades: A Historical Perspective" in. Caused a change in food web B. of the dike were seen immediately. Whenever the aborigines shall be forced from their fastnesses, as eventually they must be, the enterprising spirit of our countrymen will very soon discover the sections best adapted to cultivation, and the now barren or unproductive everglades will be made to blossom like a garden. [98] The New York Times called it a "blueprint for disaster",[99] and Wisconsin senator Gaylord Nelson wrote to President Richard Nixon voicing his opposition: "It is a test of whether or not we are really committed in this country to protecting our environment. Many died of mosquito-borne illness. Bramson, Seth (1998). For millennia, the Everglades had been fed by intermittent, diffuse overflow of the im-perfect natural levee south of the Lake. Water delivery shift from slow sheet flow to “pulses” through canals 5. By 1921, 2,000 people lived in 16 new towns around Lake Okeechobee. A few disagreed, such as Captain John Sprague, who wrote he "never supposed the country would excite an inquiry, other than as a hiding place for Indians, and had it occurred to me that so great an undertaking, one so utterly impracticable, as draining the Ever Glades was to be discussed, I should not have destroyed the scratch of pen upon a subject so fruitful, and which cannot be understood but by those who have waded the water belly deep and examined carefully the western coast by land and by water."[3]. Scientists who took soil samples before draining did not take into account that the organic composition of peat and muck in the Everglades make it prone to soil subsidence when it becomes dry. His persistence paid off when he and others persuaded Congress to designate the Everglades as a … The storm surge was as high as 15 feet (4.6 m) in some places. Kristofer Mueller South Florida Landscapes The Effects of Fire and Flooding To Tree Islands in the Florida Everglades The topic of this research paper will be the tree island communities in the Florida Everglades and the different conditions that affect them. He built the opulent Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine in 1888, and began buying land and building rail lines along the east coast of Florida, first from Jacksonville to Daytona, then as far south as Palm Beach in 1893. [42], Wading birds were a particular target. Though the canals lowered the groundwater, their capacity was inadequate for the wet season. One soldier's account of the trip in the St. Augustine News was the first printed description of the Everglades available to the general public. Hollywood movie stars vacationed in the area and industrialists built lavish homes. Developers were sued and arrested for mail fraud when people who had spent their life savings to buy land arrived in south Florida expecting to find a dry parcel of land to build upon and instead found it completely underwater. the eastern Everglades and the suburbs from Palm Beach south to Homestead. In 1928, construction was completed on the Tamiami Trail, named because it was the only road spanning between Tampa and Miami. Canals drain wetlands, which opens land for development and increases water delivery to cities, wells, and the coast. [76] The C&SF used four methods in flood management: levees, water storage areas, canal improvements, and large pumps to assist gravity. 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